History of the 46th Regiment
1741 - 1748

The claim of the Spanish Government to the right of search, and the aggressions committed by that power on the commerce of Great Britain, in the West Indies, by the guarda-costas, and other ships acting by authority of the King of Spain, contrary to the existing treaties, led to a convention between the two Crowns, which was concluded on the 14th January, 1739. This convention stipulated, that compensation should be made by Spain to the English Government, in reparation for the hostilities committed on British subjects in the American seas. The Court of Madrid, however, violated the convention, and ultimately war was proclaimed against Spain on the 23rd October, 1739.

Augmentations were accordingly made in the army and navy; ten regiments of Marines were raised in this and the following year; these corps were embarked on board the fleets under Admirals Vernon and Sir Challoner Ogle, which proceeded against the Spanish possessions in South America.

While the war was being carried on between Great Britain and Spain, Charles the Sixth, Emperor of Germany, died on the 20th October, 1740; and the succession of his daughter, the Archduchess Maria Theresa, to his hereditary dominions, being disputed by the Electors of Bavaria and Saxony, also by the Kings of Prussia and Spain, a continental war was the result, in which England and France, acting in the first instance as auxiliaries, finally became principals in the contest, which has since been known as the "War of the Austrian Succession." The King of France, Louis XV, supported the Elector of Bavaria, while King George II, adhering to the "Pragmatic Sanction," (a document published by the Emperor Charles the Sixth in 1713, stating that, should he die leaving no male heirs, his daughters were to succeed to his hereditary dominions), to which nearly all the powers of Europe had been parties, supported the claims of the Archduchess Maria Theresa.

In January 1741, seven additional regiments were raised for the regular infantry, and were numbered in succession to the ten regiments of marines, from the 54th to the 60th regiment. The 57th Regiment of 1741 became the 46th Regiment in 1748, which title it retained until amalgamation in 1881.

The command of the 57th Regiment was conferred by King George II on Colonel John Price, from the First Foot Guards, whose commission was dated 13th January, 1741. The regiment consisted of ten companies, of three sergeants, three corporals, two drummers, and seventy privates each; and its numbers, including officers, amounted to eight hundred and fifteen.

In March, 1742, the 57th Regiment was stationed at Newcastle-Upon-Tyne.

In May, 1742, several regiments were embarked for Flanders under Field Marshal the Earl of Stair, to support Maria Theresa, the Queen of Hungary and Bohemia; but the 57th Regiment remained in Great Britain.

The 57th Regiment was afterwards stationed at Berwick, and in October received orders to proceed to "North Britain" (Scotland).

On the 23rd June, 1743, Colonel the Honourable Thomas Murray, from the Third Foot Guards, was promoted Colonel of the 57th Regiment, in succession to Colonel John Price, removed to the 14th Foot.

In the meanwhile King George II had joined the army at Aschaffenberg, and on the 27th of June gained a victory over the French army, under Marshal Noailles at Dettingen.

France and Great Britain, from auxiliaries, now became principals in the contest. On he 20th March, 1744, France declared war against England, and on the 29th of that month a counter declaration was made by Great Britain, in which the French monarch was accused of violating the "Pragmatic Sanction," and of assisting the son of the Pretender in his designs on the British throne.

The operations of the British army in Flanders during the year 1744 were confined to the defensive, and no general engagement occurred.

In the early part of 1745, the 57th Regiment formed part of the force in Scotland, and had been dispersed all over the Highlands. Two companies were at Fort George, one at Ruthven, three at Fort Augustus, three at Fort William (with a small detachment on the Isle of Mull), and one at Bernera in Glenelg.

After the battle of Fontenoy, fought on the 11th May, 1745, Louis XV revived the claims of the Pretender to the Throne of Great Britain. Prince Charles Edward, eldest son of the Pretender, arrived in the Highlands of Scotland on 25th July, where he was joined by several clans.

Lieutenant-General Sir John Cope, the Commander-in-Chief in North Britain, assembled all the troops under his orders at Stirling, which consisted of about fourteen hundred men, including the 57th Regimnet, which had earlier been reunited at Perth. He afterwards advanced towards the great road called the Chain, leading through the Highlands to Inverness, and after a laborious march, arrived at Dalwhinny on the 25th August. Here intelligence was received that the rebels were posted at Corryarrack, seventeen miles distant, upon which Sir John continued his march through Badenoch to Inverness, so that the South of Scotland was left unprotected, and the Young Pretender, rather than acting defensively, as Sir John had anticipated, entered the county of Athol, seized the castle of Blair, proceeded afterwards to Perth and Dundee, proclaiming his father by new magistrates of his own appointment, levying the public money, and assuming other acts of royalty. The number of the rebels had increased to four thousand men, and on the 11th of September the young Chevalier marched from Perth, passed the Forth on the 13th, and on the 16th of that month, at night, arrived in the vicinty of Edinburgh. At five o'clock on the following morning the city was unaccountably surrendered to him without resistance. He then made his public entry, attired in Highland costume, and occupied the royal palace of Holyrood House. General Guest, who commanded the garrison of Edinburgh Castle, removed the bank, and the effects of the principal inhabitants into that fortress, which greatly disappointed the young Prince, who expected to gain possession of the treasure. His father was afterwards proclaimed with great ceremony at the High Cross, as King of Great Britain and Ireland.

Lieutenant-General Sir John Cope, realising that he had been out-manoeuvred, had marched with his troops from Inverness to Aberdeen, where they took shipping, and landed at Dunbar, twenty-seven miles east of Edinburgh, on the 18th September, when he was reinforced by Brigadier-General Fowke, with two regiments of dragoons from Edinburgh. The next day he advanced towards that city to observe the disposition of the rebels, whose strength has been estimated at between two thousand two hundred and five thousand men.

The disembarkation of the royal army, and the advance of Cope towards Edinburgh, were known to Charles in the course of Thursday the 19th. Judging it of importance that no time should be lost in meeting Cope and bringing him to action, Charles had left Holyrood House on the evening of that day, and had proceeded to Duddingston, near which place his army encamped. Having assembled a council of war, he proposed to march next morning and give battle to Sir John Cope. The members of the council having signified their acquiescence, the prince then asked the Highland chiefs how they thought their men would conduct themselves on meeting a commander who had at last mustered courage to meet them. As Macdonald of Keppoch had served in the French army, and was considered, on that account, to be a fit judge of what the Highlanders could do against regular troops, he was desired by the other chiefs to give his opinion. Keppoch observed that as the country had been long at peace, few or none of the private men had ever seen a battle, and that it was not therefore very easy to form an opinion as to how they would behave; but that he would venture to assure his royal highness that the gentlemen of the army would be in the midst of the enemy, and that as the clans loved both the cause and their chiefs, they would certainly share the danger with their leaders. Charles thereupon declared that he would lead on the Highlanders himself, and charge at their head; but the chiefs checked his impetuosity by pointing out the ruin that would befall them if he perished in the field, though his army should be successful. They declared that, should he persist in his resolution, they would return home and make the best terms they could for themselves. This remonstrance had the desired effect upon the young Chevalier, who agreed to take a post of less danger.

In pursuance of the resolution of the council, the prince put himself at the head of his army on that morning, and presented his sword, exclaimed, "My friends, I have flung away the scabbard!". This was answered by a loud huzza, on which the army marched forward in one column of three files or ranks towards Musselburgh. Passing the Esk by the bridge of Musselburgh, the army proceeded along the post road towards Pinkie. On arriving opposite the south side of Pinkie gardens, Lord George Murray, who led the van, received reliable information that Sir John Cope was at or near Preston, close to the sea, and seven miles from Edinburgh, and that his intention probably was to gain the high ground of Fawside near Carberry. As there was no time to deliberate or wait for orders, and as Lord George, who was very well acquainted with these grounds, considered the occupation of them by the Highlanders as of great importance; he struck off to the right at Edgebuckling Brae, and passing through the fields by the west side of Wallyford, gained the eminence in less that half an hour, where he waited for the rear.

From Fawside hill the prince descried the army of Cope drawn up, but its position being different from that anticipated, Charles drew off his army towards the left, and descended the hill in the direction of Tranent, entered again upon the post road at some distance to the west of the village, along which he continued his march. On approaching Tranent the Highlanders were received by the king's troops with a vehement shout of defiance, which the Highlanders answered in a similar strain. About two o'clock in the afternoon the Highland army halted on an eminence called Birsley Brae, about half a mile to the west of Tranent, and formed in order of battle about a mile from the royal forces.

In the expectation that the Highlanders were advancing by the usual route through Musselburgh, Cope had taken up a position with his front to the west; but as soon as he observed the Highlanders on the heights upon his left he changed his front to the south. This change of position, while it secured Cope better from attack, was not so well calculated for safety as the first position was in the event of a defeat. On his right was the east wall of a park, belonging to Erskine of Grange, which extended a considerable way from north to south, and still farther to the right was the village of Preston. The village of Seaton was on his left, and the village of Cockenzie and the sea in his rear. Almost immediately in front was a deep ditch filled with water, and a strong and thick hedge. Farther removed from the front, and between the two armies was a morass, the ends of which had been drained, and were intersected by numerous cuts. And on the more firm ground at the ends were several small inclosures, with hedges, dry stone walls, and willow trees.

As the Highlanders were in excellent spirits, and eager to close immediately with the enemy, Charles felt very desirous to comply with their wishes; but he soon ascertained, by examining some people of the neighbourhood, that the passage across the morass, from the nature of the ground, would be extremely dangerous if not altogether impracticable. Not wishing, however, in a matter of such importance to trust altogether to the opinion of the country people, Lord George Murray ordered Colonel Ker of Gradon, an officer of some military experience, to examine the ground, and to report. Mounted upon a little white pony he descended alone into the plain below, and with the greatest coolness and deliberation surveyed the morass on all sides. As he went along the morass several shots were fired at him, by some of Cope's men, from the sides of the ditches; but he paid so little regard to these annoyances that, on coming to a dry stone wall which stood in his way, he dismounted, and making a gap in it led his horse through. After finishing this perilous duty he returned to the army, and reported to the lieutenant-general that he considered it impracticable to pass the morass and attack the enemy in front, without risking the whole army, and that it was impossible for the men to pass the ditches in a line.

While his lieutenant-general was, in consequence of this information, planning a different mode of attack, the prince himself was moving with a great part of his army towards Solphinstone on Cope's right. Halting opposite Preston tower he seemed to threaten that flank of the English general, who, thereupon, returned to his original position with his front to Preston, and his right towards the sea. As Lord George Murray considered that the only practicable mode of attacking Cope was by advancing from the east, he led off part of the army about sunset through the village of Tranent, and sent notice to the prince to follow him with the remainder as quickly as possible. When passing through the village Lord George was joined by fifty of the Camerons, who had been posted by O'Sullivan in the churchyard at the foot of Tranent. This party being within half cannon shot of Cope's artillery, had been exposed during the afternoon to a fire from their cannon, and one or two of the Camerons had been wounded. To frighten the Highlanders, who, they imagined, had never seen cannon before, Cope's men huzzaed at every discharge; but the Camerons remained in their position, till, on the representation of Lochiel, who went and viewed the ground, and found his men unnecessarily exposed, they were ordered to retire in the direction of Tranent. O'Sullivan, who was in the rear when this order was given, came up on the junction of the party, and asking Lord George the meaning of the movement he was making, was told by him, that as it was not possible to attack the enemy with any chance of success on the west side of the village, he had resolved to assail them from the east, and that he would satisfy the prince that his plan was quite practicable, - that for this purpose he had ordered the army to march to the east side of the village, where there were good dry fields covered with stubble, on which the men could bivouack during the night, - and that with regard to the withdrawal of the party which O'Sullivan had posted in the churchyard, they could be of no service there, and were unnecessarily exposed. On being informed of the movement made by Lord George Murray, Charles proceeded to follow him, but it was dark before the rear had passed the village. To watch Cope's motions on the west, Charles left behind the Athole brigade, consisting of 500 men under Lord Nairne, which he posted near Preston above Colonel Gardiner's parks.

After the Highland army had halted on the fields to the east of Tranent, a council of war was held, at which Lord George Murray proposed to attack the enemy at break of day. He assured the members of the council that the plan was not only practicable, but that it would in all probability be attended with success, - that he knew the ground himself, and that he had just seen one or two gentlemen who were also well acquainted with every part of it. He added, that there was indeed a small defile at the east end of the ditches, but if once passed there would be no farther hindrance, and though, from being obliged to march in a column, they would necessarily consume a considerable time on their march, yet when the whole line had passed the defile they would have nothing to do but face to the left, form in a moment, and commence the attack. Charles was highly pleased with the proposal of the lieutenant-general; which having received the unanimous approbation of the council, a few piquets were, by order of Lord George, placed around the bivouack, and the Highlanders, after having supped, wrapped themselves up in their plaids, and lay down upon the ground to repose for the night. Charles, taking a sheaf of pease for a pillow, stretched himself upon the stubble, surrounded by his principal officers, all of whom followed his example. Before the army went to rest, notice was sent to Lord Nairne to leave his post with the Athole brigade at two o'clock in the morning as quietly as possible. To conceal their position from the English general, no fires or lights were allowed, and orders were issued and scrupulously obeyed, that strict silence should be kept, and that no man should stir from his place till directed.

When Cope observed Charles returning towards Tranent, he resumed his former position with his front to the west and his right to the sea. he now began to perceive that his situation was not so favourable as he had imagined, and that while the insurgents could move about at discretion, select their ground, and choose their time and mode of attack, he was cramped in his own movements, and could act only on the defensive. The spectators, who felt an interest in the fate of the army, and who had calculated upon certain success to Cope's arms during the day, now, that night was at hand, began to forebode the most gloomy results. Instead of a bold and decided movement on the part of Cope to meet the enemy, they observed that he had spent the day in doing absolutely nothing, - that he was in fact hemmed in by the Highlanders, and forced at pleasure to change his position at every movement they were pleased to make. They dreaded that an army which was obliged to act thus upon the defensive, and which would, therefore, be obliged to pass the ensuing night under arms, could not successfully resist an attack next morning from men, who, sheltered from the cold by their plaids, could enjoy the sweets of repose and rise fresh and vigorous for battle.

To secure his army from surprise during the night, Cope placed advanced piquets of horse and foot along the side of the morass, extending nearly as far east as the village of Seaton. He, at the same time, sent his baggage and military chest down to Cockenzie under a guard of 40 men of the line and all the Highlanders of the army, consisting of four companies, viz, two of newly raised men belonging to Loudon's regiments (disbanded in 1748), and two additional companies of Lord John Murray's regiment (later known as the 42nd or Black Watch), which had been diminished by desertion to fifteen men each. Although the weather had been very fine, and the days were still warm, yet the nights were now getting cold and occasionally frosty. As the night in question, that of Friday the 20th of September, was very cold, Cope ordered fires to be kindled along the front of his line, to keep his men warm. During the night he amused himself by firing off, at random, some cohorns, probably to alarms the Highlanders or disturb their slumbers, but these hardy mountaineers, if perchance they awoke for a time, disregarded these empty bravadoes, and fell back again into the arms of sleep.

In point of numbers the army of Cope was rather inferior to that of Charles; but many of the Highlanders were badly armed, and some of them were without arms. The royal forces amounted altogether to about 2,300 men; but the number in the field was diminished to 2,100 by the separation of the baggage-guard which was sent to Cockenzie. The order of battle formed by Cope along the north side of the morass was as follows:- He drew up his foot in one line, in the centre of which were eight companies of Lascelles's (later known as the 47th) regiment, and two of Guise's (later known as the 6th). On the right were five companies of Lee's (later known as the 44th) regiment, and on the left the regiment of Murray (later known as the 46th), with a number of recruits for different regiments at home and abroad. Two squadrons of Gardiner's (later known as the 13th) dragoons formed the right wing, and a similar number of Hamilton's (later known as the 14th) composed the left. The remaining squadron of each regiment was placed in the rear of its companions as a reserve. On the left of the army, near the wagon-road from Tranent to Cockenzie, were placed the artillery, consisting of six or seven pieces of cannon, and four cohorns, under the orders of Lieutenant-colonel Whiteford, and guarded by a company of Lee's regiment, commanded by Captain Cochrane. Besides the regular troops there were some volunteers, consisting principally of small parties of the neighbouring tenantry, headed by their respective landlords. Some Seceders, actuated by religious zeal, had also placed themselves under the royal standard.

Pursuant to the orders he had received, Lord Nairne left the position he had occupied during the night at the appointed hour, and rejoined the main body about three o'clock in the morning. Instead of continuing the order of march of the preceding night, it has been determined by the council of war to reverse it. The charge of this movement was entrusted to Colonel Ker, who had signalized himself by the calm intrepidity with which he had surveyed the marsh on the preceding day. To carry this plan into effect, Ker went to the head of the column, and passing along the line, desired the men to observe profound silence, and not to stir a step till he should return to them. On reaching the rear he ordered it to march from the left, and to pass close in front of the column, and returning along the line, he continued to repeat the order till the whole army was in motion. This evolution was accomplished without the least confusion, and before four o'clock in the morning the whole rebel army was in full march.

The Duke of Perth, who was to command the right wing of the rebels, was at the head of the inverted column. He was attended by Hepburn of Keith, and Mr Robert Anderson, son of Anderson of Whitbrough, who, from his intimate knowledge of the morass, was sent forward to lead the way. A little in advance of the van was a select party of 60 men doubly armed, under the command of Macdonald of Glenalladale, major of the regiment of Clanranald, whose appointed duty it was to seize the enemy's baggage. The army proceeded in an easterly direction till near the farm of Ringanhead, when, turning to the left, they marched in a northerly direction through a small valley which intersects the farm. During the march the utmost silence was observed by the men, not even a whisper being heard; and lest the trampling of horses might discover their advance, the few that were in the army were left behind. The ford or path across the morass was so narrow that the column, which marched three men abreast, had scarcely sufficient standing room, and the ground along it was so soft, than many of the men were almost at every step up to the knees in mud. The path in question, which was about two hundred paces to the west of the stone-bridge afterwards built across Seaton mill-dam, led to a small wooden bridge which had been thrown over the large ditch that ran through the morass from east to west. This bridge, and the continuation of the path on the north of it, were a little to the east of Cope's left. From ignorance of the existence of this bridge, from oversight, or from a supposition that the marsh was not passable in that quarter, Cope had placed no guards in that direction, and the consequence was, that the Highland army, whose march across could have been effectually stopped by a handful of men, passed the bridge and cleared the marsh without interruption.

The rebel army was divided into two columns or lines, with an interval between them. After the first line had got out of the marsh. Lord George Murray sent the Chevalier Johnstone, one of his aide-de-camp, to hasten the march of the second, which was conducted by the prince in person, and to see that it passed without noise and confusion. At the remote end of the marsh there was a deep ditch, three of four feet broad, over which the men had to leap. In jumping across this ditch, Charles fell upon his knees on the other side, and was immediately raised by the Chevalier Johnstone, who says, that Charles looked as if he considered the accident a bad omen.

Hitherto the darkness had concealed the march of the Highlanders; but the morning was now about to dawn, and at the time the order to halt was given, some of Cope's piquets, stationed on his left, for the first time heard the tramp of the Highlanders. The Highlanders then heard distinctly these advanced guards repeatedly call out, "Who is there?". No answer having been returned, the piquets immediately gave the alarm, and the cry of "Cannons, cannons; get ready the cannons, cannoneers", resounded on Cope's left wing.

Charles proceeded instantly to give directions for attacking Cope before he should have time to change his position by opposing his front to that of the Highland army. It was not in compliance with any rule in military science, that the order of march of the Highland army had been reversed; but in accordance with an established puctilio among the clans, which, for upwards of seven centuries, had assigned the right wing, regarded as the post of honour, to the Macdonalds. As arranged at the council of war on the preceding evening, the army was drawn up in two lines. The first consisted of the regiments of Clanraland, Keppoch, Glengary, and Glencoe, under their respective chiefs. These regiments formed the right wing, which was commanded by the Duke of Perth. The Duke of Perth's men and the Macgregors composed the centre; while the left wing, commanded by Lord George Murray, was formed of the Camerons under Lochiel, their chief, and the Stewarts of Appin commanded by Stewart of Ardshiel. The second line, which was to serve as a reserve, consisted of the Athole-men, the Robertsons of Strowan, and the Maclauchlans. This body was placed under the command of Lord Nairne.

As soon as Cope received intelligence of the advance of the Highlanders, he gave orders to change his front to the east. Some confusion took place in carrying these orders into execution, from the advanced guards belonging to the foot not being able to find the regiments to which they belonged, and who, in consequence, stationed themselves on the right of Lee's five companies, and thereby prevented the two squadrons of Gardiner's dragoons, which had been posted on the right of the line, from forming properly. For want of room the squadron under Colonel Gardiner drew up behind that commanded by Lieutenant-colonel Whitney. In all other respects the disposition of each regiment was the same; but the artillery, which before the change had been on the left, and close to that wing, was now on the right somewhat farther from the line, and in front of Whitney's squadron.

There was now no longer any impediment to prevent the armies from coming into collision; and if Cope had had the choice he could not have selected ground more favourable for the operations of cavalry than that which lay between the two armies. It was a level field of considerable extent without bush of tree, and had just been cleared of its crop of grain. But unfortunately for the English general, the celerity with which the Highlanders commenced the attack prevented him from availing himself of this local advantage.

After both lines of the Highland army had formed, Charles addressed his army in these words:- "Follow me, gentlemen; and by the assistance of God I will, this day, make you a free and happy people". He then went up to the right wing and spent a little time in earnest conversation with the Duke of Perth and Clanranald, and, having given his last instructions to them, returned to the station which, in compliance with the wish of his council, he had taken between the lines, where, surrounded by his guard, he waited the signal to advance. If, as alleged by Chevalier Johnstone, Charles exhibited symptoms of alarm when he fell on crossing the ditch, he now certainly showed that fear had no longer a place in his mind. The coolness and self-possession which he displayed when giving his orders would have done honour to the most experienced general; but these qualities are to be still more valued in a young man playing the important and dangerous game that Charles had undertaken. The officer to whose tuition Charles had been indebted for the little knowledge he had acquired of Gaelic, mentions an occurrence indicative of the prince's firmness on this occasion. In returning from the right wing to his guard after giving his orders to the Duke of Perth and Clanranald, he saw the officer alluded to passing near him, and with a smile, said to him in Gaelic, - "Gres-ort, gres-ort!" that is, "Make haste, make haste!".

By the time the arrangements for commencing the attack were completed, the morning had fully dawned, and the beams of the rising sun were beginning to illuminate the horizon; but the mist which still hovered over the corn fields prevented the two armies from seeing each other. Every thing being now in readiness for advancing, the Highlanders took off their bonnets, and placing themselves in an attitude of devotion, with upraised eyes uttered a short prayer. As the Highlanders had advanced considerably beyond the main ditch, Lord George Murray was apprehensive that Cope might turn the left flank, and to guard against such a contingency, he desired Lochiel, who was on the extreme left, to order his men in advancing to incline to the left.

Lord George Murray now ordered the left wing to advance, and sent an aide-de-camp to the Duke of Perth to request him to put the right in motion. The Highlanders moved with such rapidity that their ranks broke; to recover which, they halted once or twice before closing with the enemy. When Cope, at daybreak, observed the first line of the Highland army formed in order of battle, at the distance of two hundred paces from his position, he mistook it for bushes; but before it had advanced half way, the rays of the rising sun bursting through the retiring mist showed the armies to each other. The army of Cope at this time made a formidable appearance; and some of Charles's officers were heard afterwards to declare, that when they first saw it, and compared the gallant appearance of horse and foot, with their well-polished arms glittering in the sunbeams, with their own line broken into irregular clusters, they expected that the Highland army would be instantly defeated, and swept from the field.

The Highlanders continued to advance in profound silence. As the right wing marched straight forward without attending to the oblique movement of the Camerons to the left, a gap took place in the centre of the line. An attempt was made to fill it up with the second line, which was about fifty paces behind the first, but before this could be accomplished, the left wing, being the first to move, had advanced beyond the right of the line, and was now engaged with the enemy. By inclining to the left, the Camerons gained half the ground originally between them and the main ditch; but this movement brought them up directly opposite to Cope's cannon. On approaching the cannon the Highlanders fired a few shots at the artillery guard, which alarmed an old gunner, who had charge of the cannon, and his assistants to such a degree that they fled, carrying the powder flasks along with them. To check the advance of the Highlanders, Colonel Whiteford fired off five of the field pieces with his own hand; but though their left seemed to recoil, they instantly resumed the rapid pace they had set out with. The artillery guard next fired a volley with as little effect. Observing the squadron of dragoons under Lieutenant-Colonel Whitney advancing to charge them, the Camerons set up a loud shout, rushed past the cannon, and after discharging a few shots at the dragoons, which killed several men, and wounded the lieutenant-colonel, flew upon them sword in hand. When assailed, the squadron was reeling to and from the fire; and the Highlanders following an order they had received, to strike at the noses of the horses without minding the riders, completed the disorder. In a moment the dragoons wheeled about, rode over the artillery guard, and fled followed by the guard. The Highlanders continuing to push forward without stopping to take prisoners, Colonel Gardiner was ordered to advance with his squadron, and charge the enemy. He accordingly went forward, encouraging his men to stand firm; but this squadron, before it had advanced many paces, experienced such a reception, that it followed the example which the other had just set.

This inauspicious commencement of the action dampened the spirits of the infantry, and the panic spread from rank to rank; several companies made resistance, and feats of valour were displayed by individuals and small parties; all semblance of order was, however, soon lost. After the flight of the dragoons, the Highlanders had advanced upon the infantry, who opened a fire from right to left, which went down the line as far as Murray's regiment. They received this volley with a loud huzza, and throwing away their muskets, drew their swords and rushed upon the foot before the latter had time to reload their pieces. Hamilton's dragoons, who were stationed on Cope's left, turned their backs and fled without firing a single shot, or drawing a sword. Murray's regiment being thus left alone on the field, fired upon the Macdonalds who were advancing, but, being heavily outnumbered and without support, were soon forced to withdraw. Thus, within a very few minutes after the action had commenced, the whole army of Cope was put to flight. With the exception of their fire, not the slightest resistance was made by horse or foot, and not a single bayonet was stained with blood. Such were the impetuosity and rapidity with which the first line of the Highlanders broke through Cope's ranks, that they left numbers of his men in their rear who attempted to rally behind them; but on seeing the second line coming up they endeavoured to make their escape. Though the second line was not more than fifty paces behind the first, and was always running as fast as it could to overtake the first line, and near enough never to lose sight of it, yet such was the rapidity with which the battle was gained, that, according to the Chevalier Johnstone, who stood by the side of the prince in the second line, he could see no other enemy on the field of battle than those who were lying on the ground killed or wounded.

Unfortunately for the royal infantry, the walls of the inclosures about the village of Preston, which formed their great security on their right, now that these were in their rear, operated as a barrier to their flight. Having disencumbered themselves of their arms to facilitate their escape, they had deprived themselves of their only means of defence, and driven as they were upon the walls of the inclosure, they would have all perished under the swords of the Highlanders, had not Charles and his officers strenuously exerted themselves to preserve the lives of their discomfited foes. The impetuosity of the royal army, allowed little leisure for the exercise of humanity, and before the carnage ceased several hundreds had fallen under the claymores of the Highlanders, and the ruthless scythes of the Macgregors. Armed with these deadly weapons, which were sharpened and fixed to poles from seven to eight feet long, to supply the place of other arms, this party mowed down the affrightened enemy, cut off the legs of horses, and severed, it is said, the bodies of their riders in twain. Captain James Drummond, alias Macgregor, son of the celebrated Rob Roy, who commanded this company, fell at the commencement of the action. When advancing to the charge he received five wounds. Two bullets went through his body, and laid him prostrate on the ground. That his men might not be discouraged by his fall, this intrepid officer resting his head upon his hand, called out to them, "My lads, I am not dead! - by God, I shall see if any of you does not do his duty!". This singular address had the desired effect, and the Macgregors instantly fell on the flank of the English infantry, which, being left uncovered and exposed by the flight of the cavalry, immediately gave way.

Of the infantry of the royal army, only about 170 escaped. From a report made by their own sergeants and corporals, by order of Lord George Murray, between 1,600 and 1,700 prisoners, foot and cavalry, fell into the hands of the Highlanders, including about 70 officers. In this number were comprehended the baggage-guard, stationed at Cockenzie, which amounted to 300 men, who, on learning the fate of the main body and the loss of their cannon, surrendered to the Camerons. Of Murray's Regiment, the following officers were taken prisoners: Lieutenant-Colonel Clayton; Major Talbot; Captains Reid, John Cochran, Scot, Thomas Leslie and Blackes; Lieutenants Thomas Hay, Cranston, Disney, Wale, Wry and Simms; Ensigns Sutherland, Lucey, Holdane, Birnie, and L'Estrange; and Adjutant Spencer. The cannon and all the baggage of the royal army, together with the military chest, containing £4,000, fell into the hands of the victors. The greater part of the dragoons escaped by the two roads at the extremities of the park wall, one of which passed by Colonel Gardiner's house in the rear on their right, and the other on their left, to the north of Preston-house. In retiring towards these outlets, halted once or twice and faced about to meet the enemy; but at them, they wheeled about and fled. Cope, who was by no means deficient in personal courage, assisted by the Earls of Home and Loudon, collected about 450 of the panic-struck dragoons on the west side of the village of Preston, and attempted to lead them back to the charge; but no entreaties could induce these cowards to advance, and the whistling of a few bullets discharged by some Highlanders near the village, so alarmed them, that they instantly scampered off in a southerly direction, screening their heads behind their horses necks to avoid the bullets of the Highlanders. The general had no alternative but to gallop off with his men. He reached Coldstream, a town about forty miles from the field of battle, that night; and entered Berwick next day.

The loss on the side of the Highlanders was trifling. Four officers, and between 30 and 40 privates, were killed; and 5 or 6 officers, and between 70 and 80 privates, wounded.

After the termination of the fight, the field of battle presented an appalling spectacle, rarely exhibited in the most bloody conflicts. As almost all the slain were cut down by the broadsword and the scythe, the ground was strewed with legs, arms, hands, noses, and mutilated bodies, while, from the deep gashes inflicted by these dreadful weapons, the field was literally soaked with gore.

It was a most fortunate circumstance that the Highlanders, having no revengeful feeling to gratify on the present occasion, were easily induced to listen to the dictates of humanity. After the fury of their onset was abated, they not only readily gave, but even offered quarter; and when the action was over, appear to have displayed an unwonted sympathy for the wounded. A Highland officer thus exultingly notices the conduct of his companions in arms. "Now, whatever notions or sentiments the low country people may entertain of our Highlanders, this day there were many proofs to a diligent spectator, amidst all the bloodshed, (which at the first shock was unavoidable), of their humanity and mercy; for I can, with the strictest truth and sincerity, declare, that I often heard our people call out to the soldiers if they wanted quarter; and we, the officers exerted our utmost pains to protect the soldiers from their first fury, when either through their stubbornness or want of language they did not cry for quarters, and I observed some of our private men run to Port Seaton for ale and other liquors to support the wounded. And as one proof for all, to my own particular observation, I saw a Highlander supporting a poor wounded soldier and carry him on his back into his horse, and left him a sixpence at parting.

In their attentions to the wounded, the Highlanders had a good example in Charles himself, who not only issued orders for taking care of the wounded, but also remained on the field of battle till mid-day to see that his orders were fulfilled. Finding the few surgeons he had carried along with him inadequate to meet the demands of the wounded, he despatched one of his officers to Edinburgh to bring out all the surgeons, who accordingly instantly repaired to the field of battle. As the Highlanders felt an aversion to bury the dead, and as the country people could not be prevailed upon to assist in the care of the wounded, Charles experienced great obstacles in carrying through his humane intentions. Writing to his father, on the evening of the battle, he thus alludes to them: "Tis hard my victory should put me under new difficulties which I did not feel before, and yet this is the case. I am charged both with the care of my friends and enemies. Those who should bury the dead are run away, as if it were no business of theirs. My Highlanders think it beneath them to do it, and the country people are fled away. However, I am determined to try if I can get people for money to undertake it, for I cannot bear the thought of suffering Englishmen to rot above the ground. I am in great difficulties how I shall dispose of my wounded prisoners. If I make a hospital of the church, it will be lookt upon as a great profanation, and of having violated my manifesto, in which I promise to violate no man's property. If the magistrates would act, they would help me out of this difficulty. Come what will, I am resolved not to let the poor wounded men lye in the streets, and if I can do no better, I will make a hospital of the palace and leave it to them.

This successful commencement of the rebellion caused numerous adherents to flock to the prince's standard; several regiments were recalled from the continent in October, and His Royal Highness the Duke of Cumberland proceeded to take command of the royal army. The young Pretender, elated with the capture of Carlisle, marched as far as Derby, from whence, however, he commenced his retreat to the north on the 6th December, as he found but few partisans in England to join him in his expedition.

The Duke of Cumberland, after capturing the rebel garrison at Carlisle, returned to London, leaving the command of the army to Lieutenant-General Hawley.

In January, 1746, Stirling was closely invested by the young Chevalier, and Lieutenant-General Hawley marched to its relief. An engagement occurred at Falkirk on the 17th January, in which the prince was again victorious. It is unclear whether the 57th Regiment took part in this engagement. The Duke of Cumberland now proceeded to Edinburgh, reassumed command of the army, and on 2nd February entered Stirling.

Fortune no longer favoured the young Chevalier, who fixed his head-quarters at Inverness. The inclemency of the season having abated, the Duke of Cumberland, on the 8th of April, advanced towards the enemy, and gained a complete victory over him on the 16th April, near Culloden House, four miles east of Inverness.

From official documents it appears that on 22nd March, 1746, the 57th Regiment was stationed at Berwick, and on the 16th April following, the date of the battle of Culloden, the following letter was addressed to the Officer Commanding the first division of the regiment, then at Tuxford, in Nottinghamshire, which indicates that the corps had commenced its march towards London:-

"War Office, 16th April, 1746
"I am commanded to signify to you that it is His Majesty's pleasure, that you cause the regiment of Foot
"under your command to continue its march in two divisions, with the utmost expedition, and without halting.
"I am, &c.
(Signed) "W. Yonge.
"Officer Commanding in Chief the first division
"of Colonel Murray's regiment, at Tuxford."

Prince Charles, after enduring many hardships, succeeded in escaping to France in September. In the following month the 57th Regiment embarked at Portsmouth for Jersey.

The rebellion being suppressed, several regiments (although not the 57th) returned to Flanders, and on the 2nd July, 1747, the Duke of Cumberland engaged the French at Laffield or Val, where the Allies suffered severely from the misconduct of the Dutch troops.

The Allies again took the field in the summer of 1748, but hostilities were at length terminated by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, which was signed on the 7th October, 1748. By it all the great treaties, from that of Westphalia in 1648, which first recognised the principle of a balance of power in Europe, to that of Vienna in 1738, were renewed and confirmed. Prussia retained Silesia, and the Empress Maria Theresa was guaranteed in the possession of her hereditary dominions, according to the Pragmatic Sanction. France surrendered her conquests in Flanders, and England those in the East and West Indies; all, therefore, Great Britain gained by the war was the glory of having supported the German sovereignty of Maria Theresa, and of having adhered to former treaties.

Several regiments were disbanded in consequence of the termination of the war. On the disbanment of Colonel Spottswood's (afterwards Gooche's) American Provincial Corps, then numbered the 43rd Regiment, and of the ten Marine regiments from the 44th to the 53rd, the numerical titles of six of the seven regiments raised in 1741 were changed, and the 57th became the 46th Regiment of Foot.

Other Sources of Information

Timeline covering the 32nd and 46th Regiments and the Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry, 1702-1997.

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